Here is a great overview series on Salesforce tools available to control access:
A lot of the tools described above are available for both back-end Salesforce users as well as Partner Community users. One major different is that you don't have full role hierarchy functionality in a Partner Community. For each Taroworks Partner Account, you can only have 1-3 roles. Here is an additional Salesforce reference about external role hierarchies.
The Salesforce records that mobile users have access to via the TaroWorks mobile application is dictated by mobile record assignment. Then you can further limit access using Assigning Jobs to Groups and drill-down hierarchy filters.