When you publish a survey, TaroWorks will take your questions and convert them into a format that the android app can use. Normally this does not require a large amount of Salesforce's computing power and is completed very quickly, but in rare cases when you have included a cascading select question with a large option list (or many questions but with smaller lists) there is risk of this error happening.
Check if your survey contains any cascading select question(s). If so, check the total number of question, and for each question, do a quick count on the number of cells (columns x rows). If the total number of cells is above 5000, you run the risk of exceeding the time limit. Consider dividing the list into three or more parts that is logical (for example, by province A-M, then N-Z). If this is not possible the last resort is to use text questions.
If your survey does NOT use cascading select questions and this is still happening, please contact TaroWorks Support.